- Knowledge Areas
- Educational Experiences
- Resources/Assessment Tools
Self-reflection is the process of examining the impact of personal values, beliefs, styles of communication, and experiences. This process develops a deeper understanding of oneâ€™s culture, personal and cultural biases, experiences, and beliefs as these may influence future action and learning. Self reflection is a process that can be used to maximize personal satisfaction and strengthen MCH commitment.
Through participation in this program, a participant will know:
- The value of self-reflection in understanding personal beliefs, styles of communication, and life experiences.
- The impact of beliefs and past experiences on negotiation and leadership styles.
- The characteristics and utility of different leadership styles.
- Sources of personal reward and rejuvenation and signs of stress and fatigue.
Basic. Through participation in this program, a participant will:
- Recognize that personal attitudes, beliefs, and experiences (successes and failures)
influence one’s leadership style.
Advanced. With more experience and building on the basic skills, MCH leaders will:
- Use self-reflection techniques effectively to enhance program development, scholarship and interpersonal relationships.
- Identify a framework for productive feedback from peers and mentors.
- Readings on self-reflection and potential self-improvement strategies
- Serial self-assessments of leadership style and discussions of implications
- Journaling throughout training and reviewing and analyzing entries along the way and at completion
- Interdisciplinary group reflections of difficult clinical situations (ie, critical analysis) so each participant can identify their responses in the context of others and can reflect in dialog
- Seeks mentoring during training
Resources/Assessment Tools – 2. Self-reflection
MCHB 2004 Leadership Conference, Self Reflection Notes, http://webcast.hrsa.gov/conferences/MCHB/leadership2004/
Plack, M & Greenber, L 2005. The reflective practitioner: Reaching for excellence in practice. Pediatrics, 116:1546-1552.
Inclusion Criteria -
To be considered for initial inclusion in this web site, the materials had to meet several criteria:
- the material needed to focus on one or more of the skills listed for a particular competency
- the material needed to describe either a measurement instrument or theory that could support the creation of such an instrument
- the material had to be publicly available, that is, where the item is not a commercial entity available for purchase
- the material needed either psychometric information about its properties as a measure or, particularly in the case of material found only on the Web, a high degree of face validity
Copyright and Use Issues -
The materials initially described were identified for consideration by MCH interdisciplinary training programs. Many of these materials are copyrighted and thus, may not be copied, distributed, transmitted, or published without the express written permission of the copyright owner. It is the responsibility of each user to ascertain whether materials may be freely used or whether such permission is needed.
Leadership Style Self Evaluation:
- Personality Strength Self Evaluation such as Myers-Briggs test
- Review process of journaling with trainee identified mentor
- Dialog with other trainees and faculty
- Lennox and Wolfe’s Revision of Snyder’s Self-Monitoring Scale
- Government of Canada, self reflective exercise
Self-Monitoring Scale (Revised)
Lennox and Wolfe’s Revision of Snyder’s Self-Monitoring Scale consists of 13 items designed to evaluate a learner’s ability to “modify self-presentation” and “sensitivity to the expressive behavior of others”. The authors recommend a six-point scoring system that ranges from ‘always false’ to ‘always true.’ The questions contained in the scale may be useful in prompting learners to focus on specific components of self-monitoring that then could be addressed further, for example, by using a portfolio.
Lennox, R. D., & Wolfe, R. N. (1984). Revision of the self-monitoring scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(6): 1349-64.
The Government of Canada provides extensive web-based materials on coaching. Their seven-item self-reflective exercise is designed to help learners identify areas that may impede their leadership effectiveness. This exercise may be useful in prompting learners to focus on specific components of leadership effectiveness that then could be addressed further, for example, by using a portfolio.
The Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND) of Canada provides extensive resources for training and assessment of six leadership competencies: communication, team building and facilitation, win-win negotiation, flexibility and innovation, risk taking, and seeing the big picture. Some of these competencies map to some of the MCH leadership competencies.
The DIAND Self-Assessment exercise is designed for learners to rate themselves on a variety of skills related to the competencies and to supplement their ratings by describing recent examples. DIAND suggests that such information can then be used as the basis for individual learning plans.
This tool may be very useful in helping MCH interdisciplinary trainees to self-reflect in a targeted way and to further explore the results, perhaps using a portfolio approach.
While the ability to self-reflect is considered a core competency of MCH leadership, the ability to think introspectively has another side. Studies have found that higher private self-consciousness is associated with increased levels of psychological distress. The 28-item Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire (RRQ) was designed to assess the distinction between “neurotic self-attentiveness, or rumination, and intellectual self-attentiveness, or reflection.”
Trapnell, P. D., & Campbell, J. D. (1999). Private self-consciousness and the five-factor model of personality: Distinguishing rumination from reflection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(2): 284-304.
Portfolios are collections of information that can be used to evaluate MCH knowledge in action.
Portfolios include materials prepared by a learner to demonstrate learning in response to a plan. There is increasing evidence of the utility of portfolios for assessment of learning and for competency assurance in health care.
For a portfolio to be effective, it should include:
- a learning plan that contains specific goals and objectives
- materials that demonstrate achievement relative to the learning plan
- learner reflections
- learner and faculty evaluations of the material
The ACGME, in its draft Toolbox of Assessment Methods, provides some information about the properties and uses of portfolios for assessment.
Information at: http://www.acgme.org/outcome/assess/toolbox.asp