9. Developing Others Through Teaching and Mentoring
- Knowledge Areas
- Educational Experiences
- Resources/Assessment Tools
Communication, critical thinking, and professionalism competencies are critical to teaching and mentoring. Teaching involves designing the learning environment (includes developing learning objectives and curricula), providing resources to facilitate learning, modeling the process of effective learning in the subject matter, and evaluating whether learning occurred.
In contrast, mentoring is influencing the career development and career satisfaction of a colleague by acting as an advocate, coach, teacher, guide, role model, benevolent authority, door opener, resource, cheerful critic, and career enthusiast.
Through participation in this program, a participant will know:
- A variety of teaching strategies appropriate to the goals and context of the session.
- Principles of adult learning.
- Characteristics of a positive mentoring relationship, including confidentiality, mutuality of purpose, and trust.
- Responsibilities of both parties in the mentor-protégé relationship.
Basic. Through participation in this program, a participant will:
- Recognize and create learning opportunities for others.
- Participate in a mutually beneficial mentoring relationship.
Advanced. With more experience and building on the basic skills, MCH leaders will:
- Teach audiences of different sizes, backgrounds, and settings.
- Incorporate feedback from learners to evaluate teaching effectiveness.
- Give and receive constructive feedback about behaviors and performance.
Resources/Assessment Tools –
9. Developing Others Through Teaching and Mentoring
Faculty Mentoring Guide, Medical College of Virginia, 2002
Murray, M. Beyond the Myths and Magic of Mentoring: How to Facilitate an Effective Mentoring Process. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., 2001.
Mentoring Guide: A Guide for Mentors, Center for Health Leadership and Practice, English and Spanish, http://www.cfhl.org/publications.jsp
Mentoring Guide: A Guide for Protégés, Center for Health Leadership and Practice, English and Spanish, http://www.cfhl.org/publications.jsp
Inclusion Criteria –
To be considered for initial inclusion in this web site, the materials had to meet several criteria:
- the material needed to focus on one or more of the skills listed for a particular competency
- the material needed to describe either a measurement instrument or theory that could support the creation of such an instrument
- the material had to be publicly available, that is, where the item is not a commercial entity available for purchase
- the material needed either psychometric information about its properties as a measure or, particularly in the case of material found only on the Web, a high degree of face validity
Copyright and Use Issues –
The materials initially described were identified for consideration by MCH interdisciplinary training programs. Many of these materials are copyrighted and thus, may not be copied, distributed, transmitted, or published without the express written permission of the copyright owner. It is the responsibility of each user to ascertain whether materials may be freely used or whether such permission is needed.
How Do You Influence Others
The How Do You Influence Others quiz was developed for individual use in helping to identify the effectiveness of one’s influencing skills. The 10-item quiz presents brief situations and asks the learner to choose the response that best approximates her or his approach. A graph depicting the learner’s approaches and a summary of the literature follows submission of the quiz.
Assessment By Self/And Or Faculty
Empowering Leadership Questionnaire
The Empowering Leadership Questionnaire was developed as a self-assessment measure of leadership behaviors. The items have been found to load on five factors: leading by example, participative decision-making, coaching, informing, and showing concern/interacting with the team. The questions ask individuals to respond using a five-point scale (never to always) on how frequently they exhibit the behavior of interest. While this scale was designed for use as a self-assessment, it could also be considered for use by faculty in evaluating learner skills.
Arnold, J. A., Arad, S., Rhoades, J. A., & Drasgow, F. (2000). The Empowering Leadership Questionnaire: The construction and validation of a new scale for measuring leader behaviors. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 21: 249-69.
Assessment By Mentee
Noe’s Mentoring Functions
Noe created a 32-item scale that assessed mentor functions. Initial results showed that two factors were represented by the scale: psychosocial mentoring functions and functions relative to the mentee’s career. This measure has been cited extensively in the research literature.
Noe, R. A. (1988). An investigation of the determinants of successful assigned mentoring relationships. Personnel Psychology, 41: 457-79.
Dreher & Ash Scale
Building on the work of Noe and others, Dreher and Ash constructed an 18-item scale completed by mentees that assesses mentor functions. This shorter scale has also been cited extensively and provides a more compact way to survey mentees about their experiences with mentors.
Dreher, G. F., & Ash, R. A. (1990). A comparative study of mentoring among men and women in managerial, professional, and technical positions. Journal of Applied Psychology. 75(5): 539-46.